is becoming increasingly evident that many if not most chronic conditions are
based in large part on an infection and immune response. This includes more than just hepatitis, HIV,
EBV, etc., or with the manifestations of CFIDS, Candidiasis, certain forms of
cervical dysplasia, Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), atherosclerosis, and cancer. All of these examples there is a clear
component of infection and immune response as key contributors to the disease
condition. Arthritis, fibromyalgia,
coronary artery disease, ulcers, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease,
multiple sclerosis, are just a few of
the conditions in which infection and immune response appear to be the driving
force in the disease. While
anti-microbials seem the logical approach, there is a growing realization that
immunology may be the approach that provides long term answers.
balance and function to your immune system, in the face of a chronic infectious
(viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, etc) challenge is a fundamental challenge
necessary for recovery. To understand the therapeutic approach and goal of
optimal immunity, you must know a little bit about cytokines, which ultimately
control our immune responses. Using
nutrients and many other factors to induce or suppress specific cytokine
responses is one approach that will be explored in this web page.
are chemical messengers that control immune responses. They are secreted primarily by white blood
cells, T lymphocytes, and epithelial cells.
There are two general groupings of cytokines based on the effect they
have on lymphocytes: Th1 and Th2. The
balance between Th1 and Th2 determines the type of immune response and the
resultant health or disease that results.
(T-cell Helper type 1) promote cell-mediated immunity (CMI) while Th2 (T-cell
Helper type 2) induce humoral immunity.
Viral infections are largely controlled by cells fighting the virus,
while humoral immunity involves antibody formation. Robert Darga MD describes, “Two different
methods exist by which the body fights infections: humoral immunity (Th2)
results in the production of antibodies to neutralize foreign invaders outside
of the cells, while cellular immunity (Th1) directs Killer T-cells (CD8) to
attack microorganisms or abnormal cells at the sites of infection inside the
chronic viral disease, the worst of which is the HIV progression to AIDS, there
is a shift from Th1 (cellular immunity) to the Th2 (humoral immunity). Since
antibodies are not as effective in defeating viruses as are the cells
themselves, viral diseases progress when there is a shift from Th1 to Th2.
term cytokine is derived from the term for cells (cyto as in cytology) and the
term for action or movement (kine from the word kinetic). They include chemicals that induce cells into
a particular action. Some of the
cytokines include interleukins and the 3 classes of interferons called alpha,
beta and gamma and various subsets. The
term interferon is derived from its role to “interfere” with infection.
are multiple factors that affect either Th1 or Th2 cytokines. Th1 cytokines such as
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Interleukin 12 (IL-12), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and
IgA (an immunoglobulin that supports mucosal immunity). The Th2 immune
response is enhanced by interleukins 4, 5, 6 and 10 and alpha interferon.
many cases, an infection is fought with both arms of the immune system; at
other times only one is needed to control the infection.
failure of the Th1 arm of the immune system and an overactive Th2 arm is
implicated in a wide variety of chronic illnesses. These include AIDS, CFIDS,
Candidiasis, Multiple allergies, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS), viral
hepatitis, Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), cancer, etc. If these two arms of the
immune system could be balanced by stimulating Th1 and decreasing Th2, then
many of the symptoms associated with these chronic illnesses would diminish or
disappear and we would have found the answer to immune restoration and balance
or the equivalent of a cure. With AIDS,
it has been reported that as HIV infection progresses from the asymptomatic
stage to advanced disease, the immune response appears to shift from the more
effective Th1 state to the ineffective Th2 state.
Need for Balance
is important to realize that a normal functioning immune system needs both arms
- Th1 and Th2 to provide flexibility to respond to different kinds of pathogens
(viruses, fungi, mycoplasmas and bacteria etc) both inside and outside of the
cells. If the Th2 arm is chronically over-active as is found in many chronic
disease states such as viral infections, candidiasis, and cancer, while the Th1
arm is underactive. In end stage illnesses, both arms of immune system fail.
& IgA for Mucosal Immunity
skin and mucus membranes are the body’s primary barrier to keep out unwanted
pathogens. An open cut and/or a leaky
gut is like a fortress with an open door. Viruses, fungus bacteria, parasites,
etc have easy access to get inside.
Il-12 stimulates Killer T cells in the mucus membranes to stop viral
invasions before they get enter the body.
Restoring normal IgA in the mucus membranes is also critical to help
reduce infectious agents, foods and chemical entry into the body. Clearly restoring mucosal immunity is a
critical first step to take in immune restoration.
epithelium (mucus membranes) of the intestines are a fine filter to let
nutrients in and keep out unusable food particles. When pathogens like certain
bacteria, candida albicans, parasites, etc., replicate in or on the mucus
membranes, they inflame the epithelium and create a leaky gut that allows
byproducts of faulty digestion to enter the blood. This triggers an antibody
response (Th2) that weakens the cell-mediated immune response systematically
(Th1). This is the basis of a leaky gut
(increased intestinal permeability) discussed in more detail in another
studies show that high levels of IgA and CD8 Killer T cells in the mucus
membranes of the colon or/and vagina increase the resistance to viral and
bacterial infections. To increase the
CD8 Killer T cells in the mucus membranes and throughout the body, Th-1
promoters need to be induced with resultant IgA, IL-12, and interferon-gamma
(IFN-gamma) production - the key cytokines for restoring mucosal and systemic
THAT INCREASE Th2 CYTOKINES
three most common factors that drive Th2 cytokine responses are:
1. Faulty digestion leading to absorption
of partially digested and unusable proteins and other food particles (increases
IgG and IgE antibody responses that are directed against these foreign food
particles). This is the condition called
leaky gut due to increased intestinal permeability. Instead of the intestines serving as a
barrier to the outside world, it allows an excessive amount of particles to be
presented to the body through a non-physiologic entryway. Just as if you entered a home with a security
system through a window, the alarm is triggered and you are alerted to a
foreign invader. The result is a
recruitment of police and other protective mechanisms, in the case of the food
this represents the immune system.
Proper digestion, a balance of friendly supportive bacteria, and a
healthy gastrointestinal lining create a strong barrier to improper entry. Likewise, use of digestive enzymes, eating
slowly mixing lots of saliva with food, avoiding over-eating or processed foods
that are difficult to digest, anti-microbial therapy, etc. are necessary
components to establishing immune balance.
To emphasize the importance of proper digestion is the fact that the
largest immune organ in the body is the gastrointestinal tract!
White sugar and glucose and all processed
foods containing these (Coke, canned soda, candy bars, cake, pie, sweet
rolls etc.) - directly weakens the functioning of macrophages, natural killer
cells and other white blood cells and weakens systemic resistance to all
infections. This statement is not just
politically correct but has been documented in several scientific studies. The effects last for up to six hours, which
means if you consume this at every meal, you are basically immune -suppressed
all of the time. It may also explain
that in an otherwise nutritionally repleted individual, fasting extends
Consuming trans-fatty acids found in
almost all heated and processed vegetable oils (soy, canola, safflower, corn
and sunflower) and food products made with them (i.e. French fries, potato
chips, almost any crunchy snack) stimulate IL-6 and depress delayed type
hypersensitivity (DTH) thus weakening CD8 Killer-T cell activity. The
trans-fatty acids are twisted out of their normal “cis” shape and produce cell
membranes that are porous and vulnerable to viral infections. In his book Fats that Heal and Fats that
Kill, Udo Erasmus states: “Besides producing atherosclerosis in the
arteries of animals, fried and deep fried (vegetable) oils can also impair cell
respiration and other cell functions, inhibit immune functions, and lead to
the most problematic hydrogenated vegetable oils are in margarine and
shortening due to their high content of trans-fatty acids. Soybean oil, safflower, corn, sunflower,
canola and most other vegetable oils should also be avoided by persons with
chronic illness who have a predominant TH2 cytokine profile (too much Il-6,
Il-10, TNF and triglycerides). It is nearly impossible to find vegetable oils
that are strictly cold processed. Except for expeller pressed oils, nearly all
other vegetables are processed with solvents, hexane or gasoline, to remove the
oils from the seeds. The oil and hexane/gasoline mixture is then heated to 302
degrees F. to remove the hexane or heptane (gasoline) (1). At this point, the
oils are now toxic for human use as they are twisted out of their natural “cis”
shape and become trans-fatty acids. Add heat, light and oxygen to oils and the
lipid peroxides increase and they become rancid and develop a strong taste. The
safest and freshest oils to buy are cold pressed (best choice) or expeller that
are stored in a can or black bottle to keep out light. It is even better if Vitamin E or BHT is
added as an antioxidant to prevent lipid peroxide formation.
should be clear that consuming canned soda (i.e. Coca-cola) and French fries
regularly will make you immune compromised.
Any situation that allows you to become infected will be much more
likely to progress into a chronic condition just on the basis of your dietary
Other factors that stimulate a
Th2 response include a strain of bacteria, Streptococcus thermophilus, which is widely used in the making of commercial
yogurt. Marin ML et al from Michigan
State University found that streptococcus thermophilus significantly increased
IL-6 production in macrophage lines. They also found that lactobacillus
bulgaris and B. bifidum also increased IL-6, although less than S.
thermophilus. (J Food Prot 1998 Jul;61(7):859-64). Most commercial yogurt have
to add acidophilus and many also have S. thermophilus, which is not shown on
the label. Perhaps eating yogurt may not
be a good idea after all even though research shows that acidophilus inhibits
tumor growth in laboratory animals (Nutr Cancer 1997;28(2):130-4). If the yogurt contains more thermophilus than
acidophilus, Th2 cytokine response may dominate over the beneficial Th1
such as asbestos lead, mercury and other heavy metals, pesticides, air and
water pollutants imbalance the immune system towards Th-2 dominance.
such as progesterone (pregnancy is a state of elevated progesterone. A Th2 cytokine predominant profile is needed.
A strong Th1 cytokine profile including TNF can cause an abortion because the
immune system would reject the fetus…), prednisone (cortisol), possibly
melatonin (conflicting research suggests that high levels induce Th2 cytokines
while very small amounts induce Th1 cytokines), some anabolic steroids for
muscle gain are hard on the liver and adrenals and suppress Th1 cytokines.
such as morphine, tobacco, Thalidomide
- Note: Studies on animals show that ethanol (alcohol) definitely suppresses
Th1 cytokines and induces Th2. However, beer was not tested.
HIV, candida albicans, HCV, E coli and many other pathogens.
Stress (continuous), UVB, sedentary life - lack of exercise - leads to a build
up of toxins that weakens CMI, lack of water leads to toxic overload and
depressed CMI, negative attitudes such as suppressed anger/rage, inability to
forgive, resentfulness, holding grudges, etc. all stresses the adrenal glands
and increases cortisol levels leading to adrenal exhaustion... Low body
temperature, acid saliva pH, chronic insomnia, weight lifting - muscle tearing
increases cortisol levels.
THAT SUPPORT Th1 CYTOKINES
1. Omega 3 fatty acids (DHA/EPA) are found
in all cold water fish improve cell mediated immunity (CMI) and increase
Delayed Type Hypersensitivity and reduce IL-6 and TNF. Salmon, sardines, mackerel halibut and trout
have the highest concentrations of DHA/EPA as these types of cold water fish
have a high fat content. Lesser amounts of DHA/EPA are found in all varieties
of cold water fish. Small amounts of DHA/EPA are found in tropical fish and in
dark-green leafy vegetables and sea vegetables (blue green algae, chlorella
etc.). Fresh ground flaxseed contains a small amount of omega-3 fatty acids,
but it must be metabolized further into DHA/EPA.
with tuna fish, although high in DHA/EPA, tuna is often also contaminated with
the toxic heavy metal, mercury. For this
reason it is suggested that tuna be consumed once a week or less than other
types of fish. Of course fried fish are
not preferable to raw, fresh, canned, boiled or broiled fish. The vegetable oils used in frying fish will
promote a TH2 cytokine response that negates the benefits of the good
oils. Udo Erasmus also advises avoiding
fish that contain cetoleic acid as it is a difficult fatty acid for the body to
break down. Cetoleic acid is found in
herring, capelin, menhaden and anchovetta.
aspect of essential fats of relevance is the metabolism of fatty acids
following trauma, injury or invasion of the body by pathogens. Pro-inflammatory
cytokines, IL-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are rapidly produced in
response to the injury as part of the body’s normal initial response. However,
if this pro-inflammatory response fails to shut down, damaging effects result
researchers Grimble and Tappia report (Modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine
biology by unsaturated fatty acids. by Grimble RF, Tappia; Z Ernahrungswiss
1998;37 suppl 1:57-65) “excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, or
production of cytokines in the wrong biological context, are associated with
mortality and pathology in a wide range of diseases, such as malaria, sepsis,
rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and AIDS.....Among the
nutrients, fats have a large potential for modulating cytokine biology. A
number of trials have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of fish oils,
which are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in rheumatoid arthritis,
inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis and asthma..”
researchers Khalfoun et al found that the addition of n-3 type fish oils (DHA/EPA)
reduced IL-6 production in endothelial cell lines. They report that the n-3
fatty acids from fish oils suppress inflammation. (DHA and EPA acids inhibit in vitro human
endothelial production of interleukin -6. Adv Exp Med Biol 1997; 400B:589-97)
addition to the effects of omega-3 oils on the immune system and inflammation,
Udo Erasmus in his book, Fats that Heal - Fats that Kill reports that
DHA and EPA (from fish oil) reduced triglycerides by 65% in one study. Erasmus
also reports that EPA and DHA keep platelets from sticking, lowers fibrinogen
levels in the blood and prevents hardening of the arteries, prevents strokes
and inhibits the growth of cancer and tumors.
Mostly good things happen with omega-3 fatty acid intake.
acids are called monounsaturated and are found in cold pressed olive oil,
hazelnut or filbert oil, green and ripe olives, filberts and hazelnuts, and
less so in almonds and almond oil.
Monounsaturated oils are best used raw, but may be used in moderation
for cooking. For salad dressing, use
Extra Virgin Olive oil or hazelnut oil.
oil seems to be neutral - it neither suppresses nor enhances cell mediated
immunity. In another article by Grimble, he states: “Monounsaturated fatty
acids and omega-3 ...fatty acids suppress TNF and IL-1 production and actions,
while n-6 (polyunsaturated vegetable oils) exert the opposite effect.”
(Nutritional modulation of cytokine biology, Grimble RF; Nutrition 1998
Jul-Aug;14(7-8):634-40). For baking
purposes, best choices are coconut oil, butter or hazelnut oil. Almond oil is worth a try as well.
Most vegetable oils should be avoided as they suppress cell-mediated immunity
(CMI), the exception are those vegetable oils high in monounsaturated fatty
acids like extra virgin olive oil, hazelnut oil, etc. Almond, avocado or peanut
oil are also high in monounsaturated oils and might safely be used in
2. Vitamin A is a bit more complicated
since there are apparently different effects of vitamin A depending on the
source. In addition, many labels call
beta-carotene “vitamin A” instead of the proper term, “pro-vitamin A.” Vitamin A has a very different profile of
influence compared to carotenes. Sources
of vitamin A include cod liver oil, lemon oil.
Sources of carotenoids include cooked carrots, squash, pumpkin and sweet
3. Silica from food sources is abundant in
the herb horsetail, millet, oats and the bran portion of whole grains and in
onions and red beets. It is not easily
utilized and only certain forms of silica are available to the body. Horsetail tea, for example, has to be boiled
in order to release the active components. Klaus Kaufman in his book Silica
- The Amazing Gel reports on a case where silica gel applied topically
cleared a herpes lesion in 5 days. The author also reports that silica has been
used to successfully treat tuberculosis, warts, intestinal infections and
increases immunity to cancer as well as stimulates phagocytes (macrophages and
neutrophils) and lymphocytes (T cells). In Positive Health News, Report No 17,
scientific research that indicates that silica decreases IgG, an immunoglobulin
that when in excess diminishes Natural Killer cell activity.
Certain strains of bacteria (L-plantarum and L-Casei) strains of intestinal
flora strongly increase Il-12 production along with gamma interferon thus
increasing CD8 cytotoxic lymphocyte activity against most kinds of
intracellular viral infections.
Matsuzaki T found that mice given Lactobacillus Casei induced the
production of several cytokines including IFN-gamma, IL-beta and TNF-alpha,
resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth and chemically-induced bladder
cancer. Matsuzaki states that L. Casei
“has the potential to ameliorate or prevent a variety of diseases through
modulation of the host’s immune system, specifically cellular immune
responses.”(Int J Food Microbiol 1998 May 26;41(2):133-40).
Journal of the American Medical Assn (JAMA 1996;275(11):870-6) article on the
therapeutic uses of intestinal flora reviewed all the published material since
1966 on the subject. They reported that
controlled studies have established that L. Casei, L. acidophilus, B longum and
Saccharomyces boulardii have been successfully used to treat infantile diarrhea
caused by antibiotics. They said the time has come to explore the therapeutic
applications of these agents.
5. Ginseng (Red Korean or concentrated Siberian
Ginseng extract) - increases IL-2, IFN-gamma and NK function. Researchers in Korea have found that an acidic polysaccharide
(ginsan) derived from Panax ginseng promotes TH1 cytokines. Kim KH et al state “Spleen cells became
cytotoxic to a wide range of tumor cells after 5 days of culture with ginsan in
a non-major histocompatibility restricted manner and the activity of ginsan was
12 times higher than that of lentinian.... ginsan induced LAK cells were CD8+-
cells...ginsan induces the expression of mRNA for IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-1 alpha,
and GM-CSF....ginsan generates LAK cells from both NK and T cells...This property
may contribute to its effectiveness in the immunoprevention and immunotherapy
of cancer.” (Kim KH et al; Planta Med 1998;64(2):110-5).
YK, Lee, Oh and Kim report on a study comparing 5.4 grams of Korean Red Ginseng
daily on 16 HIV+ patients versus 10 patients who took no anti-HIV medications
for 3 - 4 years. In the group using this
form of ginseng, the average CD4 count increased from baseline of 301 to 359.
In the control group, the average baseline CD4 count of 352 decreased to
156. Cho et al concluded that “KRG has
definite long-term immune modulating effect without side effects on
HIV-infected patients.” (“Long term immunological effect of ginseng on
HIV-infected patients,” Cho
YK et al; Abstr Gen Meet Am Soc
Microbiol 1997;97:247 (abstract no. E44)).
another study from Seoul, Korea, Yun and Choi reported that ginseng users had a
lower risk of developing cancer than non-users. The data they published
indicated red ginseng was more effective in preventing cancer that the Korean
white ginseng (Preventive effects of ginseng intake against various human
cancers; Yun TK et al; Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995;4(4):401-8).
has been reported reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Studies have shown that
high TNF levels are associated with wasting syndrome and increased HIV
replication. PCM-4 is a concentrated
extract of Siberian Ginseng. There is
basis to believe similar results can be obtained at a lower cost with the
6. Soil Based Organisms (SBO’s) (bacillus
subtilis and lichenformis) - produce surfactin that inactivates lipid envelope
viruses (HIV, CMV, herpes etc), kills mycoplasmas and many bacteria and candida
albicans. By reducing candida albicans, SBO’s reduce Th2 cytokines. It has been reported that Bacillus subtilis
helped symptoms associated with CFIDS, candidiasis, herpes, allergies,
Streptococcal and Staphylococcal infections.
There are published reports that SBO’s helped shift the cytokine profile
from Th2 to Th1.
subtilis and lichenformis produced a “detergent-like” substance called
“surfactin” that dissolves the lipid envelope around certain microbes thereby
rendering them completely inactivated.
German researcher Vollenbroich D reported “The antiviral activity of surfactin, a
cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic and biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis,
was determined for a broad spectrum of viruses… especially herpes and
retroviruses...” (Biologicals 1997;25(3):289-97)
and bacterial membranes also disintegrated by exposure to surfactin (Appl
Environ Microbiol 1997;63(1):44-9). A lipopeptide similar to surfactin is
produced by bacillus lichenformis that may be even more potent at dissolving
lipid envelope viruses than surfactin from subtilis (Appl Environ Microbiol
1994;60(1):31-8). Potent antifungal
volatiles (AFV) that inactivated most types of fungus are produced by bacillus
subtilis (Fiddaman PJ et al. J. Appl Bacteriol 1994;76(4):395-4-5).
that contain both the bacillus subtilis and lichenformis have been reported to
help symptoms. Scientific research
demonstrates that surfactin produced by subtilis inactivates lipid-envelope
viruses (HIV, HHV-6 strains A and B, EBV, CMV, herpes.
7. Sunlight has been blamed for skin cancer in
many published studies. However, sunlight
increases white blood cell counts, improves delayed type hypersensitivity
(DTH), improves calcium absorption and stimulates deeper restful states of
sleep. Sunlight is a source of ultraviolet light, UVA primarily with some UVB
and a small amount of UVC. Kondo S and Jimbow K reported (Journal Cell Physiol
1998;177(3):492-8) that UVA promotes Il-12 but not IL-10. “Considering that IL-12 promotes activation
of Th1 cells and prevents activation of Th2 cells...our results suggest that
UVA modulates skin immune function distinctively from UVB.”
L et al report that exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) light causes
immunosuppression relevant to the induction of skin cancer. They studied both UVA and UVB light on the
skin and found their cytokine effects were opposite (Br J Dermatol
1998;138(2):216-20). They found UVB
increased Il-10 (Th-2) significantly.
They did not find this with UVA.
With UVA, they found a decrease in TNF-alpha while they found a
significant increase in TNF-alpha with UVB.
Other researchers have found an increase in skin cancer in persons with
psoriasis who undergo extensive UVB light treatments. Sunlight is safer if you eat a wholesome diet
rich in antioxidants and use vitamins that promote proper vitamin balance.
8. In studies on mice, electro-acupuncture increased Natural Killer
cell activity, although it did not increase the quantity of NK cells.
Electroacupuncture caused the increase in NK activity by increasing
beta-endorphin production and also increased IFN-gamma in the spleen. (Yu Y et
al; J Neuroimmunol 1998;90(2):176). In a
controlled study on 25 cancer patients and 20 controls acupuncture given for 30
minutes daily for 10 days increased IL-2 levels and NK cell activity. Pressure
points used were ST36, LI11 and RN6. In the placebo group, NK cell activity and
IL-2 levels remained below normal and unchanged. Wu concluded: “acupuncture
therapy could enhance the cellular immune function of patients with malignant
tumors... providing a beneficial effect
in anti-cancer treatment.” (Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih
Digestive enzymes - improves digestion and assimilation of proteins and other
nutrients, reduces circulating immune complexes that cause antibody and
Broken cell wall Chlorella increases IL-12, GM-CSF and activates
macrophages. T Hasegawa
(Immunopharmacology 1997;35(3):273-82) reported that in both normal mice and
mice with murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS) that Chlorella
enhances cell-mediated immunity, increased the levels of IL-1 alpha, Il-12,
GM-CSF, MIP and TNF alpha genes in the peritoneal adherent cells. They conclude
that chlorella may “preferentially augment TH1 responses against Listeria via
activation of macrophages to produce 1l-12 and enhance host defense against
Listeria infection in both normal and MAIDS mice.” The article did not state
how much Chlorella was given to the mice to enhance their cellular
immunity. Spirulina and some other sea
vegetables may have similar benefits.
L-thyroxine (T4) is a thyroid hormone that is a potent inducer of IFN-gamma (Am
J Physiol 1997 Oct;273(4 Pt 1):C125-32 and J Immunol 1998 Jul 15;161(2):843-9).
Garlic - raw or aged extract - promotes NK function and IL-2. Raw garlic kills
HIV (Int Conf AIDS. 1992 Jul 19-24;8(3):39(abstract no PuA 6173), many kinds of
fungus and bacteria including forms of tuberculosis (J Antimicrob Chemother.
1993 Oct;32(4):623-6). Tang Z et al (Hunan I Ko Ta Hsueh Pao 1997;22(3):246-8)
reports that garlic can prevent cancer in experiments on Wistar rats. He states that this effect may be due to
garlic’s ability to activate NK cells, the function of T-lymphocytes and the
level of IL-2. 5000 mg of aged garlic
extract daily restored Natural Killer cell function in a small group of HIV+
persons in 6 weeks. Raw garlic is far more powerful than aged garlic extract in
directly killing viral, parasitic and fungal infections. If fact, there is no evidence that garlic
capsules will directly kill any virus even though aged garlic has immunologic
value in activating NK function.
garlic can be irritating to sensitive mucus membranes. Eating raw garlic with food at the end of a
meal may help. Fresh parsley helps
deodorize the garlic.
Glutathione has a very important role as an anti-oxidant, neutralizes free
radicals and removes many toxins form inside the cells. Research indicates that a lack of
intracellular glutathione leads antigen presenting cells to shift from a Th1 to
a Th2 cytokine profile in response to infections. JD Peterson et al reports “By
using three different methods to deplete glutathione from T cell transgenic and
conventional mice and studying in vivo and/or in vitro responses to three
distinct antigens, we show that glutathione levels in antigen-presenting cells
determine whether Th1 or Th2 response patterns predominate.” (Proc Natl Acad
Sci USA 1998;95(6):3071-6).
promotes antigen presentation and stimulates CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Alpha Lipoic acid, selenium, N-Acetylcysteine,
cysteine, cold processed whey proteins, certified raw milk and L-glutamine are
used to increased glutathione levels.
Adequate amounts of Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6 and B2 (Riboflavin) are also
necessary. Vitamin B6 is needed to
convert methionine to cysteine, the rate limiting amino acid in glutathione
synthesis. Riboflavin helps to regenerate reduced glutathione. Vitamin B12 should be taken sublingually or
in form combined with intrinsic factor, which is necessary for absorption of
vitamin B12. Any supplemental factors that replaces glutathione helps Th1
responses. We use our own product,
EPL-GSH, with excellent clinical response.
To my knowledge it is the only oral form of glutathione that shows the
clinical response as with intravenous GSH.
14. DHEA or AED (androstenediol)
increases IL-2, IFN-gamma and decreases IL-6 and 10. DHEA or AED promotes Th1 and decreases Th2
cytokines. Research done in Mexico by
Hernandez-Pando R et al in mice exposed to B. Tuberculosis (TB) found that
either DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) or AED (androstendiol) had
antiglucocorticoid effects and promoted Th1 cytokines. They reported that
immunity to TB requires a Th1 cytokine profile. Their findings suggest that
adrenal exhaustion may promote a cytokine shift from Th1 to Th2. They report that AED was particularly
protective, causing a “fall in bacterial counts and prolonged
survival.”(Immunology 1998 Oct;95(2):234-41).
Inserra (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1998 May;218(1):76-82) at the University of Arizona found DHEA significantly
increased Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and decreased Th2 cytokines (IL-6
and Il-10) in aged mice.
UVA light promotes IL-12.
Vitamin E increases IL-2, NK function
and IFN-gamma. Reduces NF-kappa B.
Transfer factor (antigen specific) - protein immuno-modulators extracted from
colostrum from immunologically stimulated animals that promotes DTH and
specific immunity to certain antigens (viruses etc.).
Colostrum contains IgA, which promotes mucosal immunity and immunity to
specific antigens to which the animal was exposed.
Naltrexone - promotes NK function and resistance to candida albicans, thus
reducing Th2 cytokines.
IP6 - found in brown rice and corn - promotes NK function.
Lentinian and certain other mushrooms - promote Th1 cytokines and NK function.
Thymic factors increase IL-2 and T cell counts.
DNCB - promotes DTH and CD8 CTL activity
Licorice root and Dong Quai - reduces antibody production.
Beta 1, 3 glucan - found in the common yeast and in oats and oat sprouts/rye
sprouts - stimulates macrophage and neutrophil function. Note: may also spike IL-6 levels indicating a
cross-regulatory role. When given beta-glucan, IL-4
and IL-5 levels in nasal fluid were found to decrease significantly, while
IL-12 levels were found to have significantly increased.
Noni -Tahitian - 2 tablespoons twice daily - promotes NK function and immunity
Neem is a botanical that has been used in animal experiments to terminate a
pregnancy. This has been attributed by
several researchers to a strong Th1 cytokine response, particularly IFN-gamma
and TNF (Talwar et al; Am J Reprod Immunol 1997;37(6):485-91). Increases in CD8 cells have been reported.
Talwar reports that Neem has “inhibitory action on a wide spectrum of
micro-organisms, including candida albicans, C tropicalis, gonorrhea, the
multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and urinary tract Escherichia coli,
Herpes simplex-2 and HIV-1.” (Talwar et al, Immunol Cell Biol 1997;75(2):190-2)
Gingko Biloba - reduces cortisol production that suppresses Th1 cytokines.
Exercise - aerobic - light and fun. Walking, gardening, dancing, sports, etc.
increase endorphin levels - improves NK function - removes toxins from body.
substances induce both Th1 and Th2 cytokines including echinacea, astragalus
and beta 1,3 glucan. These substances are best used in a pulsed protocol, 1 to
3 days per week and not continuously. Excessive intake of zinc is
immunosuppressive and a lack of zinc is immunosuppressive. A safe dose range
for adults is 25 to 50 mg daily.
C activates Natural Killer cell function if used in a high dose (5000 to 10,000
mg) 3 days per week only. When used every daily, the body creates an enzyme to
inactivate the Vitamin C rendering it ineffective.
kill stubborn candidiasis and fungal infections other than prescription drugs
like Diflucan, it is Oregamax (Northern Spice and Herb Co). Several persons
with CFIDS or candidiasis have told this is the most effective product they
have found for Candida Albicans. Some persons have taken as much as 3 capsules
three times a day. It is important to supplement with Biotin to keep the yeast
in its single cell state where it is noninvasive. Japanese researchers have
found that oregano also kills the HIV virus. The wild crafted oregano is the
most potent product on the market. One lady told me she used oil of oregano
(Northern Spice) in enema water and had excellent results. However, unless you
turn on those Th1 cytokines, the candida will be back with the first sweet roll
factors that Stress the Immune Response in Digestion
and many other types of white blood cells are in the intestines to inspect and
determine the safety of the byproducts of digestion. Proteins and other
nutrients that are not properly digested are attacked by the immune system when
they get past the mucus membranes. Hence the importance of eating foods in a
way to assist in their complete digestion, that is, eating slowly and mixing
lot of saliva with each mouthful. The use of cultured, fermented, raw or living
foods high in natural digestive enzymes or the taking of supplemental enzymes
will assist in the digestion process. When you combine poor digestion with
leaky gut syndrome caused by Candida Albicans overgrowth, you have a
combination that causes serious stress on the immune system and weakens the
capacity of the immune system to deal effectively with infectious organisms
elsewhere in the body.
stress is further exacerbated when the mucus membranes are weak and there is a
failure of mucosal immunity (i.e.. lack of IgA and CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes in
the mucosal membranes). These factors that can stress the immune response occur
not only in HIV infection, but in HHV-6A, CFIDS, Candidiasis, Hepatitis, GWS,
cancer and in persons with allergies and multiple chemical sensitivities.
Infections of the Intestinal Tract
large intestines (colon) is a nest for the growth and
replication of many pathogens that contribute to immune dysfunction and many
symptoms. Published scientific research demonstrates that the gut can be
heavily infected with HIV, parasites, candida albicans, CMV, tuberculosis,
hepatitis viruses, cytomegalovirus and mycobacterium avium complex (MAC/MAI) to
name a few.
CFIDS, restoring mucosal integrity and immunity should substantially reduce
symptoms and digestive disorders and improve the immune response against HHV-6A
that causes neurological aberrations elsewhere.
Healthy mucus membranes are a first line of defense against
pathogens (i.e. HIV, HHV-6A, papilloma, herpes, hepatitis etc.) and foreign
proteins. Incompletely digested foods as
well as toxins from putrefying bacteria and parasites results from
parasites and putrefying bacterial overgrowth
integrity of the mucus membranes themselves. The mucus membranes in the mouth,
colon and vagina are a common route for the transmission of viruses like HIV,
HHV-6A, papilloma virus, herpes and hepatitis.
Belyakov et al at the National Cancer Institute reports “We conclude that
protection against GI mucosal challenge not only is CTL (Th-1) mediated but
also requires local mucosal CTL at the site of challenge....We also found
surprising persistence not only of memory CTL in the mucosa but also of
protective immunity against mucosal viral challenge.” The article also reported that IL-12
supported the CTL mucosal response (J. Clin Invest 1998;102(12):2072-81).