The metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats into energy is referred to as oxidation. Energy is formed and released at different stages during two cycles – glycolysis and the Citric acid cycle. To get the most energy out of foods, both cycles need to work at the right rate. If carbohydrates and amino acids are oxidized too slowly (“slow oxidation”) in one cycle or too quickly in another cycle (“fast oxidation”), energy production is reduced. Both fast and slow oxidizers suffer from inefficient energy production, but for opposite biochemical reasons. The most common symptoms of a fast or slow oxidative rate are FATIGUE, EMOTIONAL DURESS of some type, LOWERED RESISTANCE to infections, a LOW BODY TEMPERATURE, GALL BLADDER or LIVER PROBLEMS, and being over or under WEIGHT. Your oxidation rate is influenced by both genetics and by your diet. Thus, what you eat affects your rate of oxidation and energy production which in turn affects your mental, emotional, behavioral, and in some cases, physical characteristics.
THE SLOW (KETOGENIC) OXIDIZER
Generally speaking, the characteristics of slow oxidation tend to be of the alkaline, hypo-active quality. Slow oxidizers tend to have very little appetite, an aversion to heavy proteins and fats, low but steady energy levels, depression, digestive problems due to lack of hydrochloric acid production, calcium deposits, poor fat metabolism, apathy, lethargy, repressed emotions, introversion, belching, pre-mature aging, and often feel cold. A slow oxidizer often finds he/she thinks and feels better if after a heavy dinner he/she does not eat anything after arising the next morning. For this reason he/she should not eat a heavy breakfast. High intensity, short duration exercise is poorly tolerated and for the slow oxidizer needs to be of low intensity and long duration (aerobic).
Slow oxidizers have problems metabolizing carbohydrates and tend to have higher blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) after an oral glucose tolerance test. Slower oxidizers have lower levels of blood lipid (cholesterol, triglyceride) and citric acid cycle intermediates and higher levels of pyruvate and lactate. They tend to be able to hold their breath for a relatively long period and have a relatively lower pulse rate.
Dietary recommendations for the Slow oxidizer:
PROTEINS: low fat, low purine variety such as selected fish, chicken, turkey, eggs, low fat dairy
SUPPLEMENTS: Emphasize activated vitamin B1, B2, and B6, niacin., and potassium citrate, magnesium citrate and chloride, copper, manganese aspartate, and iron. PABA, vitamin C and D, and chromium are also recommended.
Eat a light breakfast (that contains protein) and restrict calcium.
ALLOWED IN MODERATION
Whole fruits, lean beef, lamb, natural and whole grains, breads and cereals, cold-processed non-hydrogenated vegetable oil (ex: olive is preferable source).
HIGH FAT or HIGH PURINE PROTEINS: fatty red meat, salmon, tuna, herring, anchovies, high purine proteins such as liver, caviar, meat concentrates, artichoke hearts, and modest purine containing foods such as beans, peas, lentils, cauliflower, spinach, and asparagus.
FATTY FOODS: lard, butter, oils, fatty meats, nuts, avocado, high fat pastries low in flour such as cheese cake, Danish, torts, peanuts, and peanut butter . High fat content DAIRY products like cheese and cream.
CARBOHYDRATES: sugars, fruit juices, alcoholic beverages, and meals consisting mainly of starches and sugars.
See the bottom of webpage for other notes about the slow oxidizer diet…
THE FAST (GLUCOGENIC) OXIDIZER
Generally speaking, the characteristics of fast oxidation tend to be of the acid, hyper-active quality. Most women tend to be fast oxidizers. Fast oxidizers tend to have strong appetites, crave and do well on heavy proteins and fatty foods, tend to get hyper yet feel exhausted underneath, feel anxious, nervous, jittery, have severe emotional ups and downs, feel too warm, irritable, impatient, are competitive and usually extroverted.
Fast oxidizers tend to have low blood sugar (reactive hypoglycemia) and higher levels of blood cholesterol and triglyceride and citric acid cycle intermediates. Bilirubin is commonly found in the urine. They tend to be unable to hold their breath a long period (one can consider the fast oxidizer functionally anemic due to low oxygen capacity in the blood) and have a relatively faster pulse rate. Exercise should be of high intensity and short duration (anaerobic) if normal or underweight but aerobic (walking, biking, etc.) if overweight.
FOODS RECOMMENDED for a Fast Oxidizer
FATS/PROTEINS: all meats (especially beef, lamb, and venison), fish (especially tuna and salmon) and fowl, especially high fat, high purine (adenine) types: such as anchovies, brains, meat gravies, soups, heart, herring, caviar, kidney, liver, sweetbreads, mussels, sardines, tuna, and meat extracts. Foods with moderate purine content include meat, shellfish (clams, crabs, lobster, oysters, shrimp), asparagus, cauliflower, spinach, lentils, yeast, whole grain breads and cereals, beans, peas, mushrooms, and peanuts.
NUTS & SEEDS: almonds, walnuts, peanuts, peanut butter, sunflower seeds
CARBOHYDRATES: cauliflower, beans, peas, lentils, broccoli, barley, corn, sprouted grains (sprouting destroys the phytates that bind calcium*)
SUPPLEMENTS: Your supplement should contain vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B (12), niacinamide, calcium pantothenate, bioflavonoids, choline, inositol, calcium, phosphorus, iodine, and zinc. Carnitine.
Eat a full breakfast. Eat frequently
ALLOWED IN MODERATION
PROTEINS: milk, buttermilk, cottage cheese, eggs
VEGETABLES: root vegetables (carrots, beets, yams, potatoes, radishes, onions), lettuce, green peppers, cabbages, pickles, cucumbers, and tomatoes
SWEETS & STARCHES:- simple carbohydrates like glucose, maltose, fruit juices, honey, corn syrup, highly glycemic foods like white bread, white rice, soft drinks, catsup, and meals consisting mainly of starches and sugars.
MISCELLANEOUS: spices, sauces, alcohol, and caffeinated drinks such as coffee, colas or tea.
SUPPLEMENTS: limit vitamin B(1) (thiamine) and vitamin B(3) (niacin) because they increase Coenzyme A and accelerate carbohydrate oxidation; vitamin B(2) (riboflavin) and vitamin B(6) (pyridoxine) because they increase the breakdown of amino acids leading to a faster citric acid cycle activity and more CO(2) generation; glucogenic amino acids (Alanine, Glycine, and Serine), and citrates.
NOTES ABOUT either a SLOW or FAST OXIDATIVE RATE
Never eat a meal that is predominantly carbohydrates. Avoid all “trans” fats (hydrogenated vegetable oils).
Any sharp shift in the weather tends to further disturb one’s metabolism in the direction it normally tends. Fast oxidizers go faster, and slow oxidizers go slower.
Common pesticides, paints, and chemicals can disturb the energy producing abilities of tissues.
In addition to knowing what foods to use sparingly and what foods to emphasize – make sure the core of your diet contains enough of the correct type of protein at every meal (about 1 gram per kilogram/2.2 pounds of ideal body weight a day*). The metabolites of protein-derived sugar is stored in the liver as glycogen and is converted to glucose when sugar derived directly from carbohydrates in the diet runs out. The gradual digestion of protein keeps an adequate and continuous glycogen (and thus blood sugar) reserve. That is not to say protein can be substituted for sugar and starch in the diet, for without available glucose, protein can not be converted into glycogen.
Alcohol depletes glycogen storage in the liver causing an increase in blood sugar. Alcohol also increases the demand for carbohydrates (by being directly broken down into acetyl CoA of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle) and the resultant nutrients needed to metabolize it. If you think you “need a drink,” you don’t. You really need energy (ATP derived from oxidation)!
Eat animal products rare or raw; avoid overcooked animal products since heat destroys essential amino acids (Phe, Lys, Thr, His, Tryp) and valuable enzymes.
* An easy way to calculate the amount is to divide your ideal body weight by 15 to get the number of ounces of cooked meat to be consumed per day. Ex: 150 pound Ideal Body Weight = 10 ounces).